PHIL012 .001 (WD) • Fall 2014• Online
*All Exams and Quizzes administered via ANGEL

David W. Agler, PhD
Office Hours: TR 3:45PM–4:45PM EST
Office Location: Chat (see Yammer & Office Hours below)

e: dwa132 [ a t ] psu [ dot] edu
w: www.davidagler.com

This is an introductory course in symbolic logic. Logic is the science of correct reasoning. Symbolic logic is a particular branch of logic that studies correct reasoning using a formal or artificial language. This course will articulate two different formal languages: propositional logic and predicate logic. In both languages, we will examine how these artificial languages relate to English (a natural language), different ways in which formal languages can be used to determine whether arguments are valid (or invalid), and how to reason using these languages.


While there are no prerequisites for this course, note that this course satisfies a quantitative requirement (GQ) and so any previous experience you have in mathematics (e.g. algebra or geometry in high school) or knowledge of computer languages will help you greatly.



1. Agler, David W. 2013. Symbolic Logic: Syntax, Semantics, and Proof. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield. Paperback: ISBN: 978-1-4422-1742-3
Hardcover: ISBN: 978-1-4422-1741-6
Kindle / eBook: ISBN978-1-4422-1743-0

Note #1: It is highly recommended that you purchase either the paperback or hardcover version of the text. The text contains a variety of mathematical / special systems that don't always display properly on electronic versions of the text.

Note #2: The text for this course contains an Errata (a list of corrections) which can be found here: Textbook Errata. Nearly every logic text has these, e.g. The Logic Book (5th ed). It is recommended that you download the Textbook Errata and before each chapter, you use it to correct the text before you begin reading the material. In addition, if you believe there is a typo in the text or in ANGEL, don't hesitate to contact me.

2. Classroom Logic Handouts: These are handouts I distribute to students when teaching the classroom version of this course.


  1. Objective #1 (Learn Two Symbolic Languages): Students will learn the vocabulary, syntax, and semantics of two different symbolic languages (propositional & predicate logic) and how these languages relate to English (chs. 1, 2, 6).
  2. Objective #2 (Learn Key Analytical Skills & Vocabulary): Students will learn how to use the symbolic languages taught in this course to determine certain fundamental features of language and how to talk about these features using analytical vocabulary, e.g. the conditions under which sentences are true or false, the definition of validity (chs.1,3,4,7).
  3. Objective #3 (Learn How to Formally Test Arguments): Students will learn how to use various mechanical tests (known as “decision procedures”) to (i) test propositions, sets of propositions, and arguments for various properties, e.g. validity and to (ii) develop counter-models for valid arguments (chs.3,4,7).
  4. Objective #3.1 (And, Learn How to Formally Test Real-World Arguments): Students will learn how to use learned information (ch.2, ch.6) about the relationship between symbolic logic and English with learned information about the truth-tree method (ch.4, ch.7) to mechanically determine whether everyday arguments are deductively valid or invalid.
  5. Objective #4 (Learn How to Solve a Proof): Students will learn how to formally solve proofs in two different languages. That is, they will learn a set of inference, derivation, or "proof" rules and use these rules to show that a conclusion follows from a set of premises (chs.5,8).
  6. Objective #5 (Learn to Think Like a Logician): Students will learn how to articulate how certain methods and procedures used in logic relate to various logical properties that belong to everyday argument and arguments in symbolic languages (chs.4,6,7).
  7. Objective #6 (Respectful Dialogue): Students will engage in respectful conversation with classmates as well as collaborate with their peers to better learn logic.


  1. Readings and Interactive Materials (ungraded): Each lesson requires a significant amount of reading from the text, and contains additional on-line content and interactive materials. Any questions about any of these materials can be posted to the Yammer PHIL012 Logic Page. Your instructor will check this forum daily.
  2. Homework Exercises (5% of final grade): You are required to complete exercises from the textbook and upload them as a file to ANGEL. Exercises are graded in terms of completion rather than whether or not they are correct. In order to receive full credit, you must do all of the following:
    1. Complete at least TEN of the exercises from the chapter, clearly labeling these, and uploading them as a file (preferably PDF) to the Exercise File Dropbox in the Lesson Folder (in ANGEL) before the due date.
      1. Example #1: Suppose Chapter 1 had three sections A, B, and C and each section has 5 problems each. You decide to do the following: Chapter 1, Exercise Set #1, A, #1-3, B #1-3, and C #1-3. This would satisfy the requirement.
      1. Example #2: Suppose Chapter 5 has eight sections. However, you decide to do ten exercises from the "End of Chapter Exercises". This too would satisfy the requirement.
      2. Note: while completing ten exercises will satisfy the requirement, you may want to do more in order to better prepare for quizzes and exams. A list of "suggested exercises" is available on the calendar of this syllabus.
  3. Eight Practice Quizzes (10% of final grade): Each lesson will contain a practice quiz that you should take when you have completed the readings, done all the exercises, and gone through all the on-line materials. These are designed to help you assess how prepared you are for the quiz and/or exam for that lesson. These will be graded for completion rather than for correctness.
  4. Eight Quizzes (15% of final grade): Most lessons will also contain a quiz covering the material for that lesson. The format of the quiz will vary depending on the subject matter of the lesson, but it will be similar to that of the practice quiz for that lesson.
  5. Five Exams (70% of final grade): There are 5 exams. The format for each exam varies depending on the material covered.
    1. Note #1: While quizzes/exams are not proctored, you are not permitted to consult with other students or your instructor during exam period (except, of course, to resolve some technical issue).
    2. Note #2: Quizzes/exams are subject to a time limit. After the time expires, the exam will be inaccessible and the grade will be calculated based on what is completed so far. Students will be given a warning prior to the time limit. See exam instructions for details.
    3. Note #3: Some quizzes/exams require a file upload. All work that is uploaded must be typed. Please do not submit photos of handwritten work.


  1. File-Naming Procedures: you can receive 1 pt for every quiz and exam that requires a manual upload provided you use correct file-naming procedures and upload as PDF (see Correct File-Naming).
  2. Chapter 3 Applying Logic to the LSAT: to receive 1 pt added to your Exam 1 grade, complete the questions found in the Conditionals Primer of the LSAT.
    1. To submit: email me a PDF of your work before the Exam 1 due date.
  3. Chapter 4 Four Theories of Truth: to receive 1 pt added to your Exam 1 grade, complete the following assignment in Four Theories of Truth.
    1. To submit: attach a PDF of your work to your Exam 2 submission.
  4. Chapter 5 Challenge Proof: to receive 1 pt added to your exam score, try to complete the "challenge proof". To receive this proof, you will need to email your instructor after you have completed Quiz #5.
    1. To submit: attach a PDF of your work to your Exam 3 submission.
  5. Chapter 9 on Modal Logic Syntax & Semantics: to receive 3 pts added to Exam 5 grade, complete the questions found in the pp.1-10 of the incomplete chapter Modal Language, Syntax, and Semantics (incomplete).
    1. To submit: attach a PDF of your work to your Exam 5 submission.
  6. Regular Participation in Yammer: you can receive 3 pts on Exam 5 if you post 10 or more constructive tips, questions, or solutions to the PHIL012 Symbolic Logic Yammer Page.
    1. Note #1: To receive these points, your posts must be throughout the course, e.g. one post on chapter 3, two posts on chapter 4, three posts on chapter 5, etc.
    2. To submit: on your Exam 5 submission, include a note indicating that you are eligible for the Regular Participation Extra Credit
  7. The Markdown & Logic Contest: you can receive 100% on any assessment of your choosing for winning the Markdown & Logic Contest.
    1. To submit: send your project as a Markdown file (.md), plain text (.txt), HTML (.html), or post your work to the web and send me a link to it prior to the due date of Exam 4.


Getting General Feedback: If you have content-related questions or want to collaborate with your peers, you have three options: (1) via Yammer, you can communicate with your instructor during online office hours using the chat function, (2) via Yammer (see below), you can post questions, comments, and other materials, (3) you can email your instructor. Note: When corresponding with your instructor or classmates, please use appropriate language and etiquette. For the best possible feedback, try to formulate your question or comment as precisely as possible, referring to page numbers, posting what you think the answer might be, etc.

Questions via Email I understand that timely feedback is important for doing well in this course. If I cannot provide a detailed response within one business day, I will write to you letting you know when I will be able to address your question. Within 48 hours of email, typically much sooner
Homework Exercises You will receive a grade via ANGEL Within 72 hours of due date
Practice Quizzes All of these (except Practice Quiz #6) are automatically graded. Immediately
Quizzes I will download your quiz, provide text comments on your quiz, then upload your quiz to ANGEL. To review your quiz, you will need to return to where you uploaded your quiz and download the document. If you are having problems, please email me. I grade quizzes as they come in, but all quizzes are graded within 72 hours of due date
Exams I will download your exam, provide text comments on your exam, then upload your exam to ANGEL. To review your exam, you will need to return to where you uploaded your exam and download the document. If you are having problems, please email me. Within 72 hours of due date


Office Hours: Your instructor will hold office hours via Chat available in Yammer.com. To Sign Up For Yammer: Go to "www.yammer.psu.edu" and using your Penn State ID, join Yammer. Once you have joined yammer, join the “PHIL 012 Symbolic Logic” group. There you will be able to access and post materials, ask questions, and interact with other students taking the course. For a step-by-step tutorial, see the Yammer Tutorial in this syllabus.



The general principles and policy relating to cheating and plagiarism, which are enforced in this class, can be found in the Penn State policy on academic misconduct. Academic Integrity: Academic dishonesty encompasses a wide range of activities, whether intentional or unintentional, that includes, but is not limited to: all forms of fraud, plagiarism, and any failure to cite explicitly all materials and sources used in one’s work. Sanctions for these activities include, but are not limited to, failure in a course, removal from the degree program, failure in a course with an explanation in the permanent transcript of the cause for failure, suspension, and expulsion. If you are unclear about whether you or someone you know is engaging in academic misconduct, read the following: University Statement on Academic Integrity. For more information, see PSU Academic Integrity, Plagiarism Tutor, & PSU Teaching & Learning with Technology


All assignments are due by 11:30PM EST on the assigned date (please refer to the course calendar in the Getting Started folder for due dates). Students will be unable to go back and complete course work; it is your responsibility to keep up with your assignments. Students with an excused absence (hospitalization, jury duty, or family emergencies) may be asked to produce proper documentation in order to make up graded work. All make up work is at the discretion of the instructor.

Late work will only be accepted for Quiz #1 and Lesson #1 Exercises. The penalty for turning these two assessments in late is a letter grade deduction for every day that the assessment is late. After the first week of the course, no late work will be accepted. Please keep in mind that the window in which you can submit a variety of assignments is large, e.g. a week to turn in the Lesson #1 Exercises, so do not wait until the last minute to turn in your assignments.


There are a number of ways to receive technical support:

• For UP Students: contact the ITS Help Desk through their website (http://itservicedesk.psu.edu) by phone (814-865-HELP (4357) or via email (ITShelpdesk@psu.edu).
• For World Campus Students: contact the Outreach Help Desk through their website (http://student.worldcampus.psu.edu/technical-support), by phone 1-800-252-3592, option 4 (toll free within the United States) or 1-814-865-0047 (local and international calls) or via email (ohd@psu.edu)
• For both UP and WD students: the “I Need Technical Assistance …” message board can be used to communicate specific questions or problems. Students are encouraged to respond to the problems and questions posted there by their peers. To access ANGEL’s technical support page, click on the Help button (in the image of a question mark), found on the left of the screen in ANGEL. Turnaround time is generally less than one business day.


Grades will be rounded up from the second decimal point, e.g. 90.95 rounds up to 91.0 while 90.94 rounds down to 90.90. In the event that eLION does not allow for a particular grade (e.g. D+), you will simply be given the letter grade (e.g. if you have a D+ then you will receive a D, and if you have a C–, you will receive a C).

A: 91–100%;
A–: 90.0–90.9
B+: 89.0–89.9
B: 81.0–88.9
B–: 80–80.9
C+: 79.0–79.9
C: 70.0–78.9
D: 60.0–69.9
F: 0–59.9

On Calculating Your Grade: While ANGEL provides a rough approximation of your grade, the syllabus is the definitive guide for determining your grade. Please use the percentages in the Course Work section to determine your grade. See also, University Grading Scale and University Policy 47-00.

On Dropping the Course: Consult the Registrar site for drop procedures. Consult the Handbook for taking an Incomplete (D/F).

On Curving: Individual assignments will not be curved. However, in the case that the average grade for students who complete the course is below 75%, a curve will be instated so that the average grade of students who completed the course is 75%.


Penn State welcomes students with disabilities into the University's educational programs. If you have a disability-related need for reasonable academic adjustments in this course, contact the Office for Disability Services (ODS) at 814-863-1807 (V/TTY). For further information regarding ODS, please visit the Office for Disability Services Web site at: http://equity.psu.edu/ods/.

In order to receive consideration for course accommodations, you must contact ODS and provide documentation (see the documentation guidelines at http://equity.psu.edu/ods/guidelines/documentation-guidelines). If the documentation supports the need for academic adjustments, ODS will provide a letter identifying appropriate academic adjustments. Please share this letter and discuss the adjustments with your instructor as early in the course as possible. You must contact ODS and request academic adjustment letters at the beginning of each semester.

If you are in need of psychological counseling, please do not hesitate to contact Penn State’s Counseling & Psychological Services (phone: 814-863-0395). For any problem related to your studies, university policies and procedures, do not hesitate to seek the help of the Student Affairs Services, your Academic Advisor, or arrange a meeting with your instructor who will help you obtain assistance through one of the above, or another, agency.


Please check the webpage on the ANGEL website regularly. An online version of the syllabus is available there, and you will be notified of any cancellation of a course meeting there. If you need to contact me, send a well-constructed email to your instructor’s email address with an appropriate subject line (e.g. PHIL012 Logic Question) and with an appropriate address (e.g. “Dear David”). Failure to do either, or emailing me with multiple links attached (“check this youtube link”) may result in your email being inadvertently deleted. Students are responsible for activity on their computer accounts so only send emails pertinent to the course. Also, please try not to send correspondence from cellular telephones (e.g. Blackberries, etc.).

Concerning email correspondence, there are some practices to keep in mind if you want optimal feedback.

  1. Be sure to use your PSU email address, address me as the recipient, and include your name as the sender. This ensures your email does not wind up in a junk folder.
  2. Be sure to include helpful specifics, e.g. the problem number, the page number of the problem, and any solutions you may have tried.

Here is a sample email (for more on best email practices, see syllabus):

Dear David,

I am in your PHIL012 World Campus course and am working on problem #A.1 from page 43.
This problem asks how to translate "John is tall and Frank is tall" in the language of PL. I translated this as "F^J" but the solution on page 45 gives "J^F" as the answer. Is my answer wrong?

Best wishes,
David Agler


Through the course of the semester, you may decide you need additional tutoring. Occasionally, Penn State Learning offers private tutoring. At their website, go to the “Resources” page, and click “Engage a Private Tutor” to request a tutor for this course.



Part I: Introduction     All assignments due at 11:30PM EST
Lesson 1: Elements of Logic Read: Chapter 1
Suggested Exercises: 
Ex Set #1, pp.12-13: A. 1-5, B. 1-5
End-of-Chapter Exercises, p.20-22: A.1-5, B.1-5, C.1-5
Best Practices for File Types & File Names
Upload PDF to dropbox
Exercise Files #1: 8/31
Practice Quiz #1: 8/31
Quiz #1: 8/31
Part II: Propositional Logic      
Lesson 2: Syntax & Semantics Read: Chapter 2
Suggested Exercises:
Ex Set #1, pp.43-45: A. 1-5, B. 1-5, C. 1-5, D. 1-5
End-of-Chapter Exercises, pp.58-60: A. 1-5, B. 1-5, C. 1-5, D. 1-7, E. 1-5, F. 1-5, G. 1-3
Logic in MSWORD (Webapps)
How to Input & Hotkey Logical Symbols
Exercise Files #2: 9/07
Practice Quiz #2:9/07
Quiz #2:9/07
Lesson 3: Truth Tables Read: Chapter 3
Suggested Exercises:
Ex Set #1, pp.68: A.1-7
Ex Set #2, pp.74: A.1-5
Ex Set #3, pp.80: A.1-5
End-of-Chapter Exercises, pp.92-94: A.1-3, B.1-3, C.1-3, D.1-3
How to Make a Truth Table in Word Exercise Files #3:9/14
Practice Quiz #3:9/14
Quiz #3:9/14
Exam #1:9/14
Lesson 4: Truth Trees Read: Chapter 4
Suggested Exercises:
Ex Set #2, pp.118-119: A. 1-7
Ex Set #3, pp.125: A. 1-7
Ex Set #4, pp.132: A. 1-5
Ex Set #5, pp.141-142: A. 1-3
End-of-Chapter Exercises, pp.150-151: A.1-3, B.1-3, C.1-3, D.1-5
How to Make a Truth Tree in Word Exercise Files #4: 9/21
Practice Quiz #4:9/21
Quiz #4:9/28
Exam #2: 10/05
Lesson 5: Derivations Read: Chapter 5
Suggested Exercises:
Ex Set #1, pp.168: A.1-5
Ex Set #2, pp.180: A. 1-5, 9
Ex Set #3, pp.182: A.1-5
Ex Set #4, pp.189-190: A.1-7, B. 1-3
Ex Set #5, pp.198: A.1-3
Ex Set #6, pp.206-7: A. 1-5, B. 1-5
End-of-Chapter Exercises, pp.223-241: Easy 1-5, Medium 34-39, Hard 67-73, Zero-Premise 102-111,
Conceptual and Application Exercises 1-2
How to Solve a Proof in Word Exercise Files #5: 10/12
Practice Quiz #5:10/12
Quiz #5:10/19
Exam #3:10/26
Part III: Predicate Logic      
Lesson 6: Syntax & Semantics Read: Chapter 6
Suggested Exercises:
Ex Set #1, pp.255: A. 1-7
Ex Set #2, pp.261-262: A. 1-5, B. 1-5, C. 1-5
Ex Set #3, pp.269: A. 1-5, B. 1-5
Ex Set #4, pp.276: A.1-5
Ex Set #5, pp.280-281: A. 1-5, B. 1-5
How to use the HTML Editor in ANGEL Exercise Files #6: 11/02
Practice Quiz #6: 11/02
Quiz #6:11/02
Lesson 7: Trees Read: Chapter 7
Suggested Exercises:
Ex Set #1, pp.292: A. 1-5
Ex Set #2, pp.302: A. 1-5
Ex Set #3, pp.307-308: A.1-3
Ex Set #4, pp.311: A.1-3
Ex Set #5, pp.316: A.1-5
Exercise Files #7:11/09
Practice Quiz #7:11/09
Quiz #7:11/09
Exam #4:11/16
Lesson 8: Derivations Read: Chapter 8
Suggested Exercises:
Ex Set #1, pp.333: A. 1-5
Ex Set #2, pp.346: A. 1-7
End-of-Chapter Exercises, pp.352: A. 1-7, B. 1-7
  Exercise Files #8:11/23
Practice Quiz #8:11/23
Quiz #8:12/7
Exam #5: 12/16
Note that this schedule is subject to revision, but all changes will be announced via email.      



Yammer is a social networking tool at PSU. We will use this tool to collaborate, ask questions about content, and to share information that will help you succeed in this course. To Get Started:

Step 1. Go to Yammer at yammer.psu.edu and click the “Log In” button. Yammer is behind WebAccess so you will log in with your PSU User ID, e.g. “xyz132” and password. You won’t need to sign up for anything new!


Step 2. Next, you should feel free to create a profile (optional) just like you would in Facebook. What is important though is that you get access to the Symbolic Logic Group. So search “PHIL012 Symbolic Logic” in the Search Bar at the top of the page.

Yammer Picture Showing How to Search for Group

Step 3. The group is private & so you will have to wait until you are approved. Once you are approved, the first place you should access the Introduction to Symbolic Logic Note and respond to the prompt there. To find this, click on PHIL012 Symbolic Logic in the Groups Sidebar, then click on Notes.

Yammer Picture showing how to access the notes page

Finally, you may want to adjust how Yammer contacts you. If you are getting bombarded with emails, there is a way to turn this off. Here is how: Go to the little silhouette of a person in the upper right corner, click “Edit Account”, then click “Notifications”, then you can set the type of notifications you receive. If you don’t want any emails, you can unclick all.


Following certain practices for choosing file types (.pdf as opposed to .doc) and file names will allow you and others to readily identify, access, and organize your work. In this course, you run the risk of not receiving credit for your work if you don’t follow the procedures below.

Rule 1. Avoid periods, and certain characters like \ / ? * & { } [ ] ”, .

Certain characters that are not easily readable or that serve specific functions should be avoided in the name of your file. Periods are used at the end of file names to indicate the format of a file.

Correct: exam3_agler.pdf
Incorrect: exam.3?agler.pdf

If you use one these characters, you or an intended recipient might not be able to open the file.

Rule 2. Use underscores instead of spaces.

On the web, spaces frequently get replaced by the percentage sign “%”. Spaces should thus be avoided because a file named “Quiz 8.doc” can get translated as “Quiz%8.doc” and this can cause confusion in trying to locate your file. If it is necessary to create a space between different characters in your file name, use an underscore. For example, if you want to name your file “Quiz8” but also want to include your last name, you might title it as follows:

Correct: quiz8_agler.pdf
Incorrect: quiz 8.pdf

Rule 3. Use a brief but descriptive name for your file.

The name of your file should contain enough information to (i) allow you to distinguish it from other files you may have and (ii) allow relevant recipients to distinguish it from other files they might receive. Suppose you are taking five courses and each course has a take home quiz that you must email to your instructor. If you title each of these “quiz.doc”, you might mistakenly send your Math quiz to your Biology teacher and your Biology quiz to your Math teacher.

In addition, if Professor Liz receives five files from five different students all named “quiz8.doc”. If Liz doesn’t rename these files, she might not know whose quiz she is grading. For PHIL012, use the name (e.g. homework) & number (homework8) of the assessment plus an underscore (e.g. homework8_) and your last name (homework8_agler) in any files you upload. For example, if you're uploading a quiz in lesson 5, you should title it as:

Correct: quiz5_lastname.pdf
Incorrect: quiz5.pdf

Rule 4. If you have multiple versions of your file, include a version number.

Finally, it is helpful to save multiple versions of a file. Sometimes files get corrupted, accidentally deleted, or you want to distinguish one version of a file from another when communicating with another individual. For this purpose, it is helpful to include use a numbering convention to distinguish different versions of the same assignment:

Correct: exam1_agler_v002.pdf or exam1_agler_2.pdf

Rule 5. When using special symbols, use PDF

Word processing programs reformat documents every time it is opened on a different computer. This means that how you see your document may not be the same as how your recipient sees it. Page numbers might get reformatted or special symbols that you may use might not appear. Therefore, whenever you submit your work, you should send it as a PDF:

Correct: exam3_agler.pdf
Incorrect: exam3_agler.docx
Incorrect: exam3_agler.pages

If you cannot save your work as a PDF (e.g. MSWord 2007 has an add-in), there are several programs and online options that will allow you to turn your document into a PDF. Here are three:

OxGarage (I recommend this one): www.tei-c.org/oxgarage/
PrimoPDF: www.primopdf.com
Online Primo PDF: www.online.primopdf.com/

Finally, for any quiz or exam requiring a file upload, you will receive +1 for submitting as PDF, for following the above file-naming procedures, and for naming your files as follows:

Scheme: assignmentname#_lastname.pdf
For Exercise Files: homework7_agler.pdf
For Quizzes: quiz5_agler.pdf
For Exams: exam5_agler.pdf


A good deal of your work will require you to upload a file into an ANGEL Drop Box.

Step 1. In the Lesson #1 ANGEL folder, click on “Exercise Files”


Step 2. Title the document you plan on submitting, e.g. “homework1_agler", and include a message describing what you are submitting. Once you have completed this, click on the Attachments button and a pop-up window will appear.


Step 3. In the pop-up window, click on Browse to search for the file you wish to upload. Once you have found it, click the Upload button, wait a moment, and then click the Finished button.


Step 4. A link to your file should now appear along with your Title and Message. Click the Submit button to submit the file.



This course will require you to submit your work as a file that displays special “logical” symbols. If you already have a version of MSWord, you can skip to the How to Input & Hotkey Logical Symbols Tutorial. If you don’t own a copy of MSWord or will be working on machines that don’t have this program installed, you do not need to purchase MSWord as Penn State provides a webapp version of it. To access MSWord, please follow the following steps:

Step 1. Type the following web address into your browser: http://webapps.psu.edu/ and click on either Office 2010 or Office 2013.

Picture of How to Access Office 2012 in PSU WebApps

Step 2. Click on the Word icon & sign in with your PSU User name and password

Picture of Accessing WORD in PSU Webapps

Step 3. Work on your file & save it. Note that you are not saving this file to your computer but to an external server at PSU. Let’s save a file titled “I love logic.docx” to the Desktop.

Picture of saving file on PSU Server

Step 4. To retrieve this file, type “https://webfiles.psu.edu/” into your browser, locate your file, and download and/or share the file.

Picture of locating file on PSU Server

In the above example, the “I love logic.docx” is located under the Desktop in the UDrive Personal (V).


Step 1. First, you must learn how to input logical symbols into a document. To do this, watch the How to Input Logical Symbols in MS Word video (especially starting at 1:12)

Step 2. Now that you know how to input logical symbols into a document, you will want to create shortcuts so that you can input the symbol you want with a single keystroke. That is, what you want is to hit “alt+ctrl+6” (or some other combination) and have the "^” symbol appear. To do this, we will need to create a shortcut or hotkey for each symbol you want to use.

First pull up the Insert Symbol Menu. That is, click [Insert, then Symbol, then More Symbols, then Font: Symbol]

Step 3. Select the symbol you want to hotkey.

Picture of How to Hotkey Logic Symbols

Step 4. Click the Shortcut Key

2nd Picture of how to hotkey logic symbols

Step 5. Enter the shortcut (hotkey) you want in “Press new shortcut key”

Final picture of how to hotkey logic symbols, yellow circle around the "shortcut key"

Now that you have returned to your word processing document, you should be able to click your keystroke and have your desired symbol appear.





If you can't use the HTML editor (this may be a problem with Java on your computer), then use the following shorthand:

E existential quantifier
A universal quantifier
-> conditional
v wedge / disjunction
^ carrot / conjunction
~ tilde / negation
<-> double arrow / biconditional

6. Help

6.a. Tip #1: Spend Extra Time Preparing for Lessons #4 and #5

Notice in the chart above that students perform better on Lessons 1-3 than they do on Lessons 4-8. As you can see from the above chart, the course becomes more difficult. So, prepare accordingly.

You can see the same trend in chart above where students perform better on Exam #1 (Lessons 1-3) than they do on Exams 2-5 (Lessons 4-8).

6.b. Tip #2: Do the Quizzes in Advance

There is a correlation between how well you do on a quiz and how well you do on an exam. This is because the content on the quizzes is similar to the content on exams. But, you will notice in the chart above, students performed better on exams (red line) than they did on quizzes (blue line). Quizzes offer me an opportunity to give you feedback before you take the exam, so take the quizzes early so you can look over my comments and prepare for the exam accordingly.

6.c. Tip #3: Do the Starred Exercises, Check Your Work, & Then Do Them Again

The answers for many of the exercises can be found in the text. One way to prepare for exams and quizzes is to do some of the exercises and compare your answers against solutions in the textbook. If you did the problem correctly, then move on to a more difficult problem. If you've done the problem, incorrectly, review the solution in the textbook, take a ten minute break, then see if you can solve the exercise on your own.

It is important that you are able to solve the solution on your own (without looking at the exercise) before moving on.

6.d. Tip #4: Watch the Course Videos, Review the Course Handouts, & Post Question on Yammer

In additional to the textbook and the online material available in ANGEL, there are several additional resources you can use to get extra help.

Handouts used Classroom Version of PHIL012
Video Tutorials for PHIL012

In addition to these materials, it is also helpful to take advantage of your classmates. The best way to do this is by posting a question or concern about the material in the PHIL012 Symbolic Logic Yammer Group. If you are not sure what to ask, try asking a simple question. For example,

"I'm not sure how to go about solving exercise ## on pp.##. Here is what I have. See attached. Could someone give me a tip on how to solve this tricky problem?"

6.e. Tip #5: Review Quiz & Exam Feedback

If you have taken a quiz or an exam that required you to manually upload a file, I downloaded this file and made comments on it. It is important that you review these comments. If after reviewing these comments you still are not sure what went wrong, please do not hesitate to email me your corrected quiz/exam and I will happily look over your work again and send you more comments.

If you are having trouble opening this file, here are some troubleshooting techniques:
1. If you submitted a WORD file but it is appears as a Google Doc file or a PDF file, it may appear without comments in your browser. Try to download this file to your desktop and open it in WORD or in ADOBE Reader
2. If you submitted a PDF, hover your mouse over the yellow sticky notes and your comments should appear.
3. If you submitted a WORD file, click the "Review" tab in the Ribbon at the top of the screen, then make sure it says "Final Showing Markup".

Version of Syllabus
Updated: 1/9/14, 3/23/14, 5/4/14, 5/11/14
Thanks to Jessica Trock for help with an update of this syllabus.

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